The Confederation Congress and the Constitution
According to the 21 February 1787 resolution of Congress the Philadelphia Convention was simply to report its recommendations to Congress. Congress, which was meeting in New York City, received the new Constitution, a letter from the Convention’s President George Washington, and a recommendation for the procedures for ratification of the Constitution. The recommendation for ratification suggested that the Constitution be transmitted to the states for their approval by state conventions. In Congress, however, some delegates wanted to make alterations before sending the Constitution to the states. Because Congress met in secret, Melancton Smith’s notes are the best source of information of the debates that occurred in Congress. The official printed journals of Congress indicate little of the maneuverings on 26-28 September within Congress as they considered the Constitution. On 27 September, Richard Henry Lee offered extensive amendments to the Constitution, including a bill of rights. Abraham Clark noted that to enter Lee’s proposal “will do injury by coming on the Journal.”
A key issue was the nature of the congressional transmittal. Federalists wanted to send the Constitution to the states with congressional approbation. Antifederalists wanted to add amendments before the transmission. A compromise was brokered. The Constitution would be sent to the states without approbation and any record of opposition within Congress would be deleted from the official record. Being astute politicians, Federalist delegates to Congress included the word “unanimously” in transmitting the Constitution to the states, thus giving the impression of congressional approbation.
For a detailed account of the events of the week that Congress discussed the Constitution see The Confederation Congress and the Constitution (pdf).
- Article VII of the Constitution (pdf)
- The President of the Convention to the President of Congress, 17 September 1787 (pdf)
- Resolutions of the Convention Recommending Procedures for Ratification, 17 September 1787 (pdf)
- Roger Alden’s Memorandum, New York, 21 September 1787 (pdf)
- Edward Carrington to James Madison, New York, 23 September 1787 (pdf)
- Nathan Dane’s Motion, 26 September 1787 (pdf) - Dane’s motion to transmit the Constitution to the states.
- Melancton Smith’s Notes of Debates, 26 September 1787 (pdf)
- Richard Henry Lee’s Motion, 27 September 1787 (pdf) - Lee's motion to have Congress consider the Constitution before sending it to the states.
- Abraham Clark’s Motion, 27 September 1787 (pdf) - Clark's motion to send the Constitution directly to the states.
- Richard Henry Lee’s Proposed Amendments, 27 September 1787 (pdf) - Lee's suggestions included a bill of rights and some structural changes including the addition of a privy council.
- Melancton Smith’s Notes of Debates, 27 September 1787 (pdf)
- Resolution of Congress, 28 September 1787 (pdf) - The transmittal of the Constitution from Congress to the state legislatures.
- Charles Thomson, Circular Letter to the State Executives, New York, 28 September 1787 (pdf) - A letter to governors transmitting the Constitution to the state legislatures so that they could call state conventions to consider ratification.