University of Wisconsin–Madison

The Federalist Papers

Appearing in New York newspapers as the New York Ratification Convention met in Poughkeepsie, John Jay, Alexander Hamilton and James Madison wrote as Publius and addressed the citizens of New York through the Federalist Papers.  These essays subsequently circulated and were reprinted throughout the states as the Ratification process unfolded in other states.  Initially appearing as individual items in several New York newspapers, all eighty-five essays were eventually combined and published as The Federalist.  Click here to view a chronology of the Printing and Reprintings of The Federalist.  

Considerable debate has surrounded these essays since their publication. Many suggest they represent the best exposition of the Constitution to date. Their conceptual design would affirm this view.  Others contend that they were mere propaganda to allay fears of the opposition to the Constitution. Regardless, they are often included in the canon of the world’s great political writings. A complete introduction exploring the purpose, authorship, circulation, and reactions to The Federalist can be found here.

No. 1 (Hamilton) New York Independent Journal, 27 October 1787

General Introduction

No. 2 (Jay) New York Independent Journal, 31 October 1787

Concerning Dangers from Foreign Force and Influence

No. 3 (Jay) New York Independent Journal, 3 November 1787

Concerning Dangers from Foreign Force and Influence

No. 4 (Jay) New York Independent Journal, 7 November 1787

Concerning Dangers from Foreign Force and Influence

No. 5 (Jay) New York Independent Journal, 10 November 1787

Concerning Dangers from Foreign Force and Influence

No. 6 (Hamilton) New York Independent Journal, 14 November 1787

Concerning Dangers from Dissensions Between the States

No. 7 (Hamilton) New York Independent Journal, 17 November 1787

Concerning Dangers from Dissensions Between the States

No. 8 (Hamilton) New York Packet, 20 November 1787

Concerning Dangers from Dissensions Between the States

No. 9 (Hamilton) New York Independent Journal, 21 November 1787

Concerning Dangers from Dissensions Between the States

No. 10 (Madison) New York Daily Advertiser, 22 November 1787

The Union as a Safeguard Against Domestic Faction and Insurrection

No. 11 (Hamilton) New York Independent Journal, 24 November 1787

The Utility of the Union in Respect to Commercial Relations and a Navy

No. 12 (Hamilton) New York Packet, 27 November 1787

The Utility of the Union In Respect to Revenue

No. 13 (Hamilton) New York Independent Journal, 28 November 1787

Advantage of the Union in Respect to Economy in Government

No. 14 (Madison) New York Packet, 30 November 1787

Objections to the Proposed Constitution From Extent of Territory Answered

No. 15 (Hamilton) New York Independent Journal, 1 December 1787

The Insufficiency of the Present Confederation to Preserve the Union

No. 16 (Hamilton) New York Packet, 4 December 1787

The Insufficiency of the Present Confederation to Preserve the Union

No. 17 (Hamilton) New York Independent Journal, 5 December 1787

The Insufficiency of the Present Confederation to Preserve the Union

No. 18 (Madison with Hamilton) New York Packet, 7 December 1787

The Insufficiency of the Present Confederation to Preserve the Union

No. 19 (Madison with Hamilton) New York Independent Journal, 8 December 1787

The Insufficiency of the Present Confederation to Preserve the Union

No. 20 (Madison with Hamilton) New York Packet, 11 December 1787

The Insufficiency of the Present Confederation to Preserve the Union

No. 21 (Hamilton) New York Independent Journal, 12 December 1787

The Insufficiency of the Present Confederation to Preserve the Union

No. 22 (Hamilton) New York Packet, 14 December 1787

The Insufficiency of the Present Confederation to Preserve the Union

No. 23 (Hamilton) New York Packet, 18 December 1787

The Necessity of Energetic Government to Preserve of the Union

No. 24 (Hamilton) New York Independent Journal, 19 December 1787

Powers Necessary to the Common Defense Further Considered

No. 25 (Hamilton) New York Packet, 21 December 1787

Powers Necessary to the Common Defense Further Considered

No. 26 (Hamilton) New York Independent Journal, 22 December 1787

Restraining the Legislative Authority in Regard to the Common Defense

No. 27 (Hamilton) New York Packet, 25 December 1787

Restraining the Legislative Authority in Regard to the Common Defense

No. 28 (Hamilton) New York Independent Journal, 26 December 1787

Restraining the Legislative Authority in Regard to the Common Defense

No. 29 (Hamilton) New York Independent Journal, 9 January 1788

Concerning the Militia

No. 30 (Hamilton) New York Packet, 28 December 1787

Concerning the General Power of Taxation

No. 31 (Hamilton) New York Packet, 1 January 1788

Concerning the General Power of Taxation

Nos. 32–33 (Hamilton) New York Independent Journal, 2 January 1788

Concerning the General Power of Taxation

No. 34 (Hamilton) New York Packet, 4 January 1788

Concerning the General Power of Taxation

No. 35 (Hamilton) New York Independent Journal, 5 January 1788

Concerning the General Power of Taxation

No. 36 (Hamilton) New York Packet, 8 January 1788

Concerning the General Power of Taxation

No. 37 (Madison) New York Daily Advertiser, 11 January 1788

The Difficulties of the Convention in Devising a Proper Form of Government

No. 38 (Madison) New York Independent Journal, 12 January 1788

The Difficulties of the Convention in Devising a Proper Form of Government

No. 39 (Madison) New York Independent Journal, 16 January 1788

The Conformity of the Plan to Republican Principles

No. 40 (Madison) New York Packet, 18 January 1788

The Powers of the Convention to Form a Mixed Government Examined

No. 41 (Madison) New York Independent Journal, 19 January 1788

General View of the Powers Conferred by the Constitution

No. 42 (Madison) New York Packet, 22 January 1788

General View of the Powers Conferred by the Constitution

No. 43 (Madison) New York Independent Journal, 23 January 1788

General View of the Powers Conferred by the Constitution

No. 44 (Madison) New York Packet, 25 January 1788

Restrictions on the Authority of the Several States

No. 45 (Madison) New York Independent Journal, 26 January 1788

Alleged Danger From the Powers of the Union to the State Governments

No. 46 (Madison) New York Packet, 29 January 1788

Influence of the State and Federal Governments Compared

No. 47 (Madison) New York Independent Journal, 30 January 1788

Structure of the New Government and the Distribution of Powers

No. 48 (Madison) New York Packet, 1 February 1788

Departments Should Not Be So Far Separated

No. 49 (Madison) New York Independent Journal, 2 February 1788

Guarding Against the Encroachments of Any One Department of Government

No. 50 (Madison) New York Packet, 5 February 1788

Periodic Appeals to the People Considered

No. 51 (Madison) New York Independent Journal, 6 February 1788

Structure of Government Must Furnish Proper Checks and Balances

No. 52 (Madison?) New York Packet, 8 February 1788

The House of Representatives

No. 53 (Madison or Hamilton) New York Independent Journal, 9 February 1788

The House of Representatives

No. 54 (Madison) New York Packet, 12 February 1788

The Apportionment of Members Among the States

No. 55 (Madison?) New York Independent Journal, 13 February 1788

The Total Number of the House of Representatives

No. 56 (Madison?) New York Independent Journal, 16 February 1788

The Total Number of the House of Representatives

No. 57 (Madison?) New York Packet, 19 February 1788

The Alleged Tendency of the Plan to Elevate the Few at the Expense of the Many

No. 58 (Madison?) New York Independent Journal, 20 February 1788

Objection That The Numbers Will Not Be Augmented as Population Increases

No. 59 (Hamilton) New York Packet, 22 February 1788

Concerning the Power of Congress to Regulate the Election of Members

No. 60 (Hamilton) New York Independent Journal, 23 February 1788

Concerning the Power of Congress to Regulate the Election of Members

No. 61 (Hamilton) New York Packet, 26 February 1788

Concerning the Power of Congress to Regulate the Election of Members

No. 62 (Madison?) New York Independent Journal, 27 February 1788

The Senate

No. 63 (Madison?) New York Independent Journal, 1 March 1788

The Senate

No. 64 (Jay) New York Independent Journal, 5 March 1788

The Powers of the Senate

No. 65 (Hamilton) New York Packet, 7 March 1788

The Senate

No. 66 (Hamilton) New York Independent Journal, 8 March 1788

Objections to the Power of the Senate To Set as a Court for Impeachments

No. 67 (Hamilton) New York Packet, 11 March 1788

The Executive Department

No. 68 (Hamilton) New York Independent Journal, 12 March 1788

The Mode of Electing the President

No. 69 (Hamilton) New York Packet, 14 March 1788

The Real Character of the Executive

No. 70 (Hamilton) New York Independent Journal, 15 March 1788

The Executive Department Further Considered

No. 71 (Hamilton) New York Packet, 18 March 1788

The Duration in Office of the Executive

No. 72 (Hamilton) New York Independent Journal, 19 March 1788

Re-Eligibility of the Executive Considered

No. 73 (Hamilton) New York Packet, 21 March 1788

Provision For The Support of the Executive, and the Veto Power

No. 74 (Hamilton) New York Packet, 25 March 1788

The Command of the Military and Naval Forces, and the Pardoning Power

No. 75 (Hamilton) New York Independent Journal, 26 March 1788

The Treaty Making Power of the Executive

No. 76 (Hamilton) New York Packet, 1 April 1788

The Appointing Power of the Executive

No. 77 (Hamilton) New York Independent Journal, 2 April 1788     

Appointing Power and Other Powers of the Executive Considered                           

No. 78 (Hamilton) Book Edition, Volume II, 28 May 1788

The Judiciary Department

No. 79 (Hamilton) Book Edition, Volume II, 28 May 1788

The Judiciary Department

No. 80 (Hamilton) Book Edition, Volume II, 28 May 1788

The Powers of the Judiciary

No. 81 (Hamilton) Book Edition, Volume II, 28 May 1788

The Judiciary Continued, and the Distribution of the Judicial Authority

No. 82 (Hamilton) Book Edition, Volume II, 28 May 1788

The Judiciary Continued

No. 83 (Hamilton) Book Edition, Volume II, 28 May 1788

The Judiciary Continued in Relation to Trial by Jury

No. 84 (Hamilton) Book Edition, Volume II, 28 May 1788

Miscellaneous Objections to the Constitution Considered

No. 85 (Hamilton) Book Edition, Volume II, 28 May 1788

Concluding Remarks